Principal texts of Hinduism

Dating to 6, BCE, the Vedas constitute the oldest scripture in the world. In Hindu belief, deities can take many forms, but all combine in the universal spirit of Brahman. Unlike Judaism, Christianity and Islam, which focus on the actions of a single lifetime, Hindu belief centers on a continuous process of birth and rebirth that ultimately releases the true self from the limitations of body and the ego — a freeing of the spirit called moksha. That process includes a release from sensual experiences, including sexuality. Hindu sacred texts, however, do not distinguish between heterosexual and homosexual acts. While Hindu sacred texts do not specifically use those terms heterosexual and homosexual , they do distinguish between procreative sexual acts within marriage and non-procreative sexual acts such as oral, etc. The latter are explicitly discouraged not for the common man but for brahmanas and priests. The Vedas refer to a “third sex,” roughly defined as people for whom sex is not procreative, either through impotence or a lack of desire for the opposite sex.

Question Seven: Do Hindus have a Bible?

Divali Diwali Festival of Lights. Hinduism is the world’s third most popular religion, with around million followers. The religion of Hinduism originated in Northern India, near the river Indus, about years ago and is the world’s oldest existing religion. Aum is the main symbol of Hinduism. It is the sound heard in deepest meditation and is said to be the name most suited for God.

The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The “circum-Vedic” texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. – BCE. According to tradition, Vyasa is.

British Broadcasting Corporation Home. Hindus believe that the Vedas texts were received by scholars direct from God and passed on to the next generations by word of mouth. Hindus believe that the texts were received by scholars direct from God and passed on to the next generations by word of mouth. Vedic texts are sometimes called shruti , which means hearing.

For hundreds, maybe even thousands of years, the texts were passed on orally. The Vedas are made up of four compositions, and each veda in turn has four parts which are arranged chronologically. The Upanishads were so called because they were taught to those who sat down beside their teachers. These texts developed from the Vedic tradition, but largely reshaped Hinduism by providing believers with philosophical knowledge.

The major Upanishads were largely composed between BCE and are partly prose, partly verse. Later Upanishads continued to be composed right down to the 16th century. Originally they were in oral form. Whilst the priests brahmins had previously been the ones who, through ritual and sacrifice, had restricted access to the divine, now the knowledge of the universe was open to those of the high and middle castes willing to learn from a teacher.

Hindu Classification of Books

The Puranic chronology gives a timeline of Hindu history according to the Hindu scriptures. Two central dates are the Mahabharata War , which according to this chronology happened at BCE, and the start of the Kali Yuga , which according to this chronology started at BCE. The Puranic chronology is referred to by proponents of Indigenous Aryans to propose an earlier dating of the Vedic period, and the spread of Indo-European languages out of India.

The Puranas contain stories about the creation of the world, and the yugas. Mahabharata , Ramayana and the Puranas also contain genealogies of kings, which are used for the traditional chronology of India’s ancient history. Michael Witzel doubts the reliability of these texts, concluding that they “have clearly lifted parts of lineages, fragment by fragment, from the Vedas and have supplied the rest

Dating to 6, BCE, the Vedas constitute the oldest scripture in the world. In Hindu belief, deities can take many forms, but all combine in the universal spirit of​.

The Vedas are the primary texts of Hinduism. They also had a vast influence on Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Traditionally the text of the Vedas was coeval with the universe. Scholars have determined that the Rig Veda, the oldest of the four Vedas, was composed about B. It is unknown when it was finally committed to writing, but this probably was at some point after B. The Vedas contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India. Along with the Book of the Dead , the Enuma Elish , the I Ching , and the Avesta , they are among the most ancient religious texts still in existence.

Besides their spiritual value, they also give a unique view of everyday life in India four thousand years ago. The Vedas are also the most ancient extensive texts in an Indo-European language, and as such are invaluable in the study of comparative linguistics. A Vedic Reader for Students excerpts by A. The Sama-Veda translated by Ralph Griffith [ ] A collection of hymns used by the priests during the Soma sacrifice. Many of these duplicate in part or in whole hymns from the Rig Veda. This is a complete translation.

The Yajur Veda is a detailed manual of the Vedic sacrificial rites.

List of Vedic Literature| Sacred Hindu Scriptures

Islam in vedas. The most significant being, that Upanishads do not need a personified god, while such a god could indeed be a very useful device. The concept of Hinduism being a single monolithic religion is recent, dating back only to the 19th century. Not only the Jewish and Christian scriptures but also the Hindu scriptures contain many prophecies about the Holy Prophet of Islam saw.

The adoration of these deities is founded in the Vedas, according to the Texts relating to them: “Our deity is extolled in the Vedas, ” each system contains such a declaration.

Introduction (Authorship and Date). ^ Narayan, R.K. The Ramayana. Penguin Group, , page xxiii: “The Indian epic, the Ramayana, dates back.

A recipient of several awards for both music and dance, Priya is also a freelance writer online. She currently writes for About. Please wait Sign up Sign in. Shopping Cart 0. Favorites 0. The Ancient Wisdom of the Vedas. The Vedas are ancient Hindu texts, constituting the oldest written material of Sanskrit literature and scriptures ever available to Hinduism. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, these texts are considered to be apauruseva; meaning, “not of a man, but of a superhuman” or “authorless”.

The Vedas are also referred to as Sruti that which is heard and Smriti that which is remembered. Hindus consider these texts as sacrosanct, as they are believed to be revelations made by ancient sages, after years of intense meditation. According to the Epic Mahabharata , Brahma is credited with the creation of the Vedas, while the Vedic hymns are believed to be given to us by great Rishis.

They have therefore been carefully preserved since the ancient times. Each one of these Vedas is subclassified into four major text types, namely, the Samhitas mantras , the Aranyakas information on rituals, ceremonies and so on , the Brahmanas commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and so on and the Upanishads discussion on meditation, philosophy and spirituality.


Hinduism Schools Wikipedia Selection. Hinduism encompasses many religious beliefs, practices, and denominations. Most Hindus believe in a supreme cosmic spirit called Brahman that is worshipped in many forms, represented by individual deities such as Vishnu, Shiva and Shakti. Hinduism centers around a variety of practices that are meant to help one experience the divinity that is everywhere and realize the true nature of the Self. Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world, with approximately 1 billion adherents figure , of whom about million live in India.

Hinduism boasts a diverse collection of sacred writings. Hindu sacred texts are classified as either Shruti (“heard,” meaning revelation) or Smriti (“remembered,”​.

Vedic literatures are most important sources of knowledge about Aryans and Vedic period. The literature had grown in the course of many centuries and was handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth which also called shruti. Compiled around BC 2. A collection of hymns 4. Volumes are called Mandal 5. Mandal IX contains hyms called Purusha Sukta from where varna system is discussed.

9 myths about Hinduism, debunked

Ancient Hindus were very clever. They classified not only plants and animals for the first time in human history but also the books. Since they were mathematical geniuses they used the numbers for all their anthologies, poetry, books, verses etc.

The Hindu Vedas are the original scriptures of Hindu teachings, It is thought, though, that the earliest Vegas may date back to roughly

Question Seven: Do Hindus have a Bible? A: Our “Bible” is called the Veda. The Veda, which means “wisdom,” is comprised of four ancient and holy scriptures which all Hindus revere as the revealed word of God. The knowledge imparted by the Vedas ranges from earthy devotion to high philosophy. Their words and wisdom permeate Hindu thought, ritual and meditation. The Vedas are the ultimate scriptural authority for Hindus. Their oldest portions are said by some to date back as far as 6, bce, orally transmitted for most of history and written down in Sanskrit in the last few millennia, making them the world’s longest and most ancient scripture.

The Vedas open a rare window into ancient Indian society, proclaiming life’s sacredness and the way to oneness with God. Elaboration: For untold centuries unto today, the Vedas have remained the sustaining force and authoritative doctrine, guiding followers in ways of worship, duty and enlightenment. The Vedas are the meditative and philosophical focus for millions of monks and a billion seekers.

Their stanzas are chanted from memory by priests and laymen daily as liturgy in temple worship and domestic ritual. All Hindus wholeheartedly accept the Vedas, yet each draws selectively, interprets freely and amplifies abundantly. Over time, this tolerant allegiance has woven the varied tapestry of Indian Hindu Dharma. Each of the four Vedas has four sections: Samhitas hymn collections , Brahmanas priestly manuals , Aran-yakas forest treatises and Upanishads enlightened discourses.

12 Things You Need to Know About Hinduism

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The Vedas are a collection of religious texts that form the foundation of Hindu theology. The word Veda is Sanskrit (वेद) for “knowledge”. Hindus believe that.

Composed in Vedic Sanskrit , the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The Vedas have been orally transmitted since the 2nd millennium BCE with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques. The Sanskrit term veda as a common noun means “knowledge”. Marai literally means “hidden, a secret, mystery”. Such writings include the Divya Prabandham aka Tiruvaymoli. The corpus of Vedic Sanskrit texts includes:. While production of Brahmanas and Aranyakas ceased with the end of the Vedic period, additional Upanishads were composed after the end of the Vedic period.

In other parts, they show evolution of ideas, such as from actual sacrifice to symbolic sacrifice, and of spirituality in the Upanishads. As Axel Michaels explains:. According to tradition, Vyasa is the compiler of the Vedas, who arranged the four kinds of mantras into four Samhitas Collections.

Hindu texts

Whenever information is provided ,especially about tht vast stretches of Time and archaeological finds relating to Indian History ivam immediately asked whether it is is Carbon dated. I wrote articles on Thiruvannamalai being 3. May be it can be extended to years by accelersted technics. Indian History extends beyond , years.

The Hindu scriptures declare that Brahman (the impersonal God) is beyond description, While they have not been dated with much certainty, even the most​.

Often times, scholars use the astronomical signs mentioned in our ancient texts to date those texts. The problem with this is that they do not provide definitive dates in themselves, but provide dates with repetitious cycles unless additional information is taken into account. There are two equinoxes during the calender year: the spring equinox and the vernal equinox and are days when the light of the Sun will spend a nearly equal amount of time above and below the horizon at every location on Earth and night and day will be of the same length.

An equinox in astronomy is that moment in time not a whole day when the center of the Sun can be observed to be directly above the Earth’s equator, occurring around March 20 and September 23 each year. The one in March 20 is considered the spring equinox and the September equinox is the vernal equinox. The precession of the equinoxes refers to the precession of Earth’s axis of rotation with respect to inertial space.

The positions of the equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic compared to the fixed stars on the celestial sphere. Currently, this annual motion is about The process is slow, but cumulative. In terms of people from earth observing the stars, it looks like the constellations of the zodiac move counter-cyclical to the earth’s motion around the sun. This journey over 25, years covers the 12 constellations of the sky with the sun rising on the vernal equinox in the same zodiac for approximately 2, years in each constellation.

Since there is also a precession of the earth’s axis, the equinox dates keep changing every year, and when seen from a stellar background the constellation in which the sun rises on the vernal equinox also keeps changing over a period of time. During the Vedic age, the vernal equinox is considered to have occurred in the month of Margashira named after a star lambda orionis in the constellation of Orion.

In our times today, the sun rises in the background of Pisces Meena Rashi on the vernal equinox we will transition to Aquarius from Pisces in the year 2, AD.

Timeline of Hinduism

The Age of Vedas The sacred books of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam have definite historical dates assigned to them. The Tripitakas are said to have been written about the time of Asoka , though the Buddha’s date , according to some puranas, went further back by several centuries. The Koran, which is the word of God conveyed to the Prophet, is about 1, years old. The New Testament of the Bible is about 2,00 years old.

Though no one can assign any definite date to the Vedas, Oreintalists are anxious to discover when they were “composed”.

Another problem with dating the history of Hinduism comes from the fact that writing They considered the Gita as a sort of Hindu Bible.

The Vedas are considered the earliest literary record of Indo-Aryan civilization and the most sacred books of India. They are the original scriptures of Hindu teachings , containing spiritual knowledge encompassing all aspects of life. The word Veda means wisdom, knowledge or vision, and it serves to manifest the language of the gods in human speech. The laws of the Vedas have regulated the social, legal, domestic and religious customs of Hindus up to the present day.

All the obligatory duties of Hindus at birth, marriage, death etc. It is difficult to say when the earliest portions of the Vedas came into existence, but it seems clear they are among the very earliest written wisdom documents produced humans. As the ancient Hindus seldom kept any historical record of their religious, literary and political realization, it is difficult to determine the period of the Vedas with precision. Historians provide us many guesses but none are guaranteed to be precise.

Hinduism – World’s Oldest Religion Explained – Origins, Beliefs, Facts

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